Background: Purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) is a potent wound healing growth factor and stimulator of the proliferation and recruitment of both periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone cells. The hypothesis tested in this study was that application of rhPDGF-BB incorporated in bone allograft would induce regeneration of a complete new attachment apparatus, including bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum in human interproximal intrabony defects and molar Class II furcation lesions.
Methods: Nine adult patients (15 sites) with advanced periodontitis exhibiting at least one tooth requiring extraction due to an extensive interproximal intrabony and/or molar Class II furcation defect were entered into the study. Eleven defects were randomly selected to receive rhPDGF-BB. Following full-thickness flap reflection and initial debridement, the tooth roots were notched at the apical extent of the calculus, the osseous defects were thoroughly debrided, and the tooth root(s) were planed/prepared. The osseous defects were then filled with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) saturated with one of three concentrations of rhPDGF-BB (0.5 mg/ml, 1.0 mg/ml, or 5.0 mg/ml). Concurrently, four interproximal defects were treated with a well accepted commercially available graft (anorganic bovine bone in collagen, ABB-C) and a bilayer collagen membrane. Radiographs, clinical probing depths, and attachment levels were obtained preoperatively (at baseline) and 9 months later. At 9 months postoperatively, the study tooth and surrounding tissues were removed en bloc. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed for change from baseline by defect type and PDGF concentration. The histologic specimens were analyzed for the presence of regeneration of a complete new attachment apparatus coronal to the reference notch.
Results: The post-surgical wound rapidly healed and was characterized by firm, pink gingivae within 7 to 10 days of surgery. There were no unfavorable tissue reactions or other safety concerns associated with the treatments throughout the course of the study. In rhPDGF/allograft sites, the vertical probing depth (vPD) reduction for interproximal defects was 6.42 +/- 1.69 mm (mean +/- SD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain was 6.17 +/- 1.94 mm (both P < 0.01). Radiographic fill was 2.14 +/- 0.85 mm. Sites filled with ABB-C had a PD reduction and CAL gain of 5.75 +/- 0.5 and 5.25 +/- 1.71, respectively. Furcation defects treated with rhPDGF/allograft exhibited a mean horizontal and vertical PD reduction of 3.40 +/- 0.55 mm (P < 0.001) and 4.00 +/- 1.58 mm (P < 0.005), respectively. The CAL gain for furcation defects was 3.2 +/- 2.17 mm (P < 0.030). Histologic evaluation revealed regeneration of a complete periodontal attachment apparatus, including new cementum, PDL, and bone coronal to the root notch in four of the six interproximal defects and all evaluable (four of four) furcation defects treated with PDGF. Two of the four interproximal intrabony defects treated with ABB-C and membrane exhibited regeneration.
Conclusions: Use of purified rhPDGF-BB mixed with bone allograft results in robust periodontal regeneration in both Class II furcations and interproximal intrabony defects. This is the first report of periodontal regeneration demonstrated histologically in human Class II furcation defects.