DNA methylation and expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II transactivator genes in human developmental tumor cells and in T cell malignancies

Clin Immunol. 2003 Oct;109(1):46-52. doi: 10.1016/s1521-6616(03)00200-6.


Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules play essential roles in the immune response by virtue of their ability to present peptides to T lymphocytes. Given their central role in adaptive immunity, the genes encoding these peptide-presenting molecules are regulated in a tight fashion to meet with local requirements for an adequate immune response. In contrast to MHC class I gene products, which are expressed on almost all nucleated cells, constitutive expression of MHC class II molecules is found in specialized antigen presenting cells of the immune system only. Transcription of both MHC class I and class II genes can be induced by immune regulators and upon cell activation. Transcription of MHC class I genes is mediated by a set of conserved cis acting regulatory elements in their promoters. Of these regulatory elements, MHC class II promoters share the SXY-module. Essential for activation of MHC class II promoters is the class II transactivator (CIITA), which acts through protein/protein interactions with regulatory factors bound to the SXY module. In this review, we discuss the role of DNA methylation in relation to altered expression of MHC class I and CIITA genes as observed in malignancies and in development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation*
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Genes, MHC Class I*
  • Genes, MHC Class II*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, T-Cell / genetics*
  • Leukemia, T-Cell / immunology*
  • Leukemia, T-Cell / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Transcriptional Activation


  • Chromatin
  • DNA, Neoplasm