The effects of hormone replacement therapy type on pulmonary functions in postmenopausal women

Maturitas. 2003 Nov 20;46(3):213-8. doi: 10.1016/s0378-5122(03)00191-9.


Objective: To study whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or Tibolone has an effect on pulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Seventy-five postmenopausal women without any risk factor for pulmonary disease were included in this randomized, prospective study. Fifty women had undergone natural menopause and 25 had had a hysterectomy/ooforectomy. Twenty-five natural menopause women were randomly allocated to two groups: 25 patients (Group I) were treated with Tibolone 2.5 mg/day, 25 patients (group II) with Estradiol Hemihidrate 2 mg+Norethindron Asetate 1 mg/day. Twenty-five induced menopause women were treated with 17 beta-estradiol 2 mg/day. Lung function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)), FEV(1)/FVC, forced expiratory flow rate over the 25-75% of the forced vital capacity volume (FEF(25-75%)), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were evaluated at the beginning and 3 months after the treatment to assess the effects of HRT and Tibolone on respiratory function.

Results: Regardless of HRT types a significant difference was observed in FVC and FEV(1) after 3 months of the therapy (P=0.001, 0.0001, respectively). No significant difference was found between pre and post therapy values in the other parameters (P>0.05).

Conclusions: We determined a significant increase in FVC and FEV(1) parameters of pulmonary functions after 3 months of the therapy regardless of HRT types. Therefore, we think that HRT regimens have modifying effects on pulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Estradiol / pharmacology
  • Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy* / methods
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Norethindrone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Norethindrone / pharmacology
  • Norethindrone Acetate
  • Norpregnenes / pharmacology
  • Postmenopause / drug effects*
  • Postmenopause / physiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Random Allocation
  • Vital Capacity / drug effects*


  • Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • Norpregnenes
  • Estradiol
  • Norethindrone Acetate
  • tibolone
  • Norethindrone