Ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide: effects on immunosurveillance

Oncology. 2003;65 Suppl 2:17-20. doi: 10.1159/000073353.


Ifosfamide (IF) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) are chemotherapeutic agents frequently used in the treatment of human malignancies. These drugs can exhibit a bimodal mechanism of antitumor action with cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects when associated with adoptive immunotherapy. In human peripheral blood lymphocytes, IF irreversibly inhibits the proliferative response to interleukin-2 in a dose-dependent manner and may also induce the phosphorylation of HSP27 by depleting glutathione. CTX promotes discrete cytokine profiles upregulating the expansion of Th1 cells, and this may be important to increase cellular immune response. The data presented in this report indicate that treatment regimens of CTX and IF may be used according to the tumor immunogenicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / immunology*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology
  • Cyclophosphamide / immunology*
  • Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Ifosfamide / immunology*
  • Ifosfamide / pharmacology
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / immunology*
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Ifosfamide