Multilevel analysis of women's empowerment and HIV prevention: quantitative survey Results from a preliminary study in Botswana

AIDS Behav. 2003 Jun;7(2):195-208. doi: 10.1023/a:1023954526639.


This preliminary study explored relationships between women's empowerment and HIV prevention on the national and individual level with a focus on Botswana. Among sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV prevalence was positively correlated with indirect indicators of women's empowerment relating to their education (female enrollment in secondary education and ratio of female to male secondary school enrollment), but not to their economic status (female share of paid employment in industry and services) or political status (women's share of seats in national parliament), while controlling for gross national income, percentage of births attended, and percentage of roads paved. Condom use at last sexual encounter was positively and significantly correlated with both indicators of women's educational empowerment, but was not significantly related to the other two indices. Empowerment at the individual level was explored through a preliminary quantitative survey of 71 sexually active women in Gaborone, Botswana, that was conducted in February 2001. Regression analyses showed that women's negotiating power and economic independence were the factors most strongly related to condom use, and did not show that education was a crucial factor. Economic independence was the factor most strongly related to negotiating power. These results suggest that in Botswana, HIV prevention efforts may need to improve women's negotiating skills and access to income-generating activities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Botswana
  • Condoms
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Negotiating
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Politics
  • Power, Psychological*
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Social Class
  • Women's Health*