Inflow effect correction in fast gradient-echo perfusion imaging

Magn Reson Med. 2003 Nov;50(5):885-91. doi: 10.1002/mrm.10633.


The purposes of this study were to assess the extent of the inflow effect on signal intensity (SI) for fast gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) sequences used to observe first-pass perfusion, and to develop and validate a correction method for this effect. A phantom experiment with a flow apparatus was performed to determine SI as a function of Gd-DTPA concentration for various velocities. Subsequently a flow-sensitive calibration method was developed, and validated on bolus injections into an open-circuit flow apparatus and in vivo. It is shown that calibration methods based on static phantoms are not appropriate for accurate signal-to-concentration conversion in images affected by high flow. The flow-corrected calibration method presented here can be used to improve the accuracy and robustness of the arterial input function (AIF) determination for tissue perfusion quantification using MRI and contrast media.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Calibration
  • Contrast Media
  • Female
  • Gadolinium DTPA
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perfusion
  • Phantoms, Imaging


  • Contrast Media
  • Gadolinium DTPA