Visuospatial learning: Ruff Light Trail Learning Test

Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1996;11(4):313-27.


The assessment of memory typically includes tests for both audioverbal and visuospatial processing, while measurements of learning have primarily utilized the audioverbal mode. However, there exists no compelling reason why learning should not also be assessed in the visuospatial mode. The Ruff Light Trail Learning Test (RULIT) represents such an option. Normative values utilizing 307 volunteers indicated neither significant gender nor educational differences. However, an age effect for those subjects 55 and older was demonstrated, and our data suggest that the major reason for the inferior learning in this older subgroup was their reduced memory capacities rather than their slowed visuospatial processing. Multiple components including learning curves, error analysis, and delayed recall are presented. Test-retest data also indicate an adequate reliability. The validity was compared to concurrently administered neuropsychological tests, and, finally, the potential for neuropsychological application of this new test is discussed.