Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is an acute febrile illness endemic Ethiopia. To date reports of childhood LBRF are few. The demographic, social and clinical features of eighty children with LBRF admitted to Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital, Addis Abeba between 1989 and 1991 is presented. The mean age of patients was 8.8 years (range 4 months to 15 years). The male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Seventy-seven (97%) patients came from Addis Abeba. They came from poor families living in overcrowded homes. Fever, headache, right upper quadrant pain, chills and rigors were common symptoms. Fever and hepatosplenomegaly were common signs. Three drug regimens were used in the treatment of patients. A combination of penicillin and tetracycline, chloramphenicol alone and erythromycin alone, all given for 3 days. There was only one death. The literature on LBRF in adults is reviewed and the results are compared (1).