The D2 subtype of dopamine receptor has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Early evidence supporting an association between the Cys311Ser polymorphism of the D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and schizophrenia was subsequently refuted and, eventually, dismissed. From all 24 published case-control studies, we calculated a pooled estimate of this association. The pooled odds ratio was 1.3 for the Cys allele, which was highly significant (P=0.007). The odds ratio derived from each study was unrelated to the ethnicity or gender composition of the sample, or the age of the control group. There was no evidence of publication bias or excessive influence attributable to any given study. Although more family-based studies are needed to confirm this relation, our results provide strong evidence that DRD2 influences susceptibility to schizophrenia.