The N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti strains AK631 and 1021 when cultured in a defined glucose-nitrate medium were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS). Both strains synthesized several long-chain AHLs. Defined medium cultures of strain AK631 synthesized a complex mixture of AHLs with short acyl side chains. Strain 1021 produced no short-chain AHLs when grown on defined medium and made a somewhat different set of long-chain AHLs than previously reported for cultures in rich medium. While the two strains produced several AHLs in common, the differences in AHLs produced suggest that there may be significant differences in their patterns of quorum-sensing regulation.