The marine strain Bacillus pumilus strain AAS3, isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Acanthella acuta, produced a diglucosyl-glycerolipid, 1,2-O-diacyl-3-[beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-glucopyranosyl)]glycerol, with 14-methylhexadecanoic acid and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid as the main fatty acid moieties (GGL11). On a 30 l scale, using artificial seawater supplemented with glucose (20 g/l), yeast extract (10 g/l), and suitable nitrogen/phosphate sources, growth-associated glycoglycerolipid production reached its maximum yield of 90 mg/l after 11 h. Lipase-catalyzed modification of the native substance led to the deacylated parent compound (GG11), which could be reacylated using the same enzyme system to afford a new dipentenoyl-diglucosylglycerol (GGL12) as the major product upon addition of 4-pentenoic acid to the medium. GGL11 decreased the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 29 mN/m and the interfacial tension of the water/ n-hexadecane system from 44 to 5 mN/m. Anti-tumor-promoting studies on this class of diglucosyl glycerol products showed that the carbohydrate/glycerol backbone (GG11) has a more potent inhibitory activity than the acylated compounds. The diglucosyl-glycerol GG11 strongly inhibited growth of the tumor cell lines HM02 and Hep G2 (50% inhibition at approximately 1 microg/ml), while the glycerolipids GGL11 and GGL12 were less active or had no effect.
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