The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of neuroendoscopic techniques (in comparison with other surgical procedures) in the treatment for arachnoid cysts in children. The analysis was performed on results of treatment 22 children with arachnoid cysts submitted to neuroendoscopic procedures. The group consisted of 6 girls and 16 boys, aged from 1 day to 18 years (mean age 5.3 years, SD +/- 5.6). The control group treated with other, non-endoscopic surgical procedures consisted of 61 patients (20 girls and 41 boys aged from 10 days to 17 years, mean age 7 years, SD +/- 6). Criteria of success varied according to the type of surgical treatment. In the case of procedures other than shunt implantation, the treatment was regarded as effective, if there was no need to change the surgical method, while shunt implantation was considered effective, if shunt revision was not necessary. The operative treatment outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Post-treatment changes in the clinical state were graded as improvement, no change, or deterioration. In terms of the assumed criteria of success in the treatment for arachnoid cysts, neuroendoscopic procedures and microsurgical cyst excisions were among the most effective methods. As many as 90.9% of neuroendoscopically treated children needed no other operation, in comparison with 92.6% of patients submitted to microsurgical procedures, who needed no change in the operative treatment. In the group of neuroendoscopically treated patients the effectiveness of neuroendoscopic operations varied according to the type of procedure used. Cystocysternostomies or cystoventriculostomies were successful in 100%. The analysis of clinical outcome has shown that deterioration was observed only in 13% of the patients with shunt implantation. Analyzing each type of arachnoid cyst separately, a statistically significant relationship was found between improvement of the clinical state and the use of craniotomy in the surgical treatment for cysts localized in the posterior fossa. Improvement in the case of neuroendoscopically treated children was related to a larger reduction in the cyst size after surgery and to a lower intensity of intraoperative bleeding. Neuroendoscopic techniques allowed to reduce the average period of hospitalization. Neuroendoscopic cystocysternostomy and cystoventriculostomy were the most effective techniques, besides microsurgical excision of arachnoid cysts. Neuroendoscopic treatment efficacy depends on the type of procedure used. The application of neuroendoscopic techniques allows to reduce the period of hospitalization.