A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus that inhibits Clostridium tyrobutyricum has been isolated from raw milk. The active compound produced disappears after a treatment with protease. However, unlike most bacteriocins, it is not thermoresistant, and the activity is completely lost after 1 h at 60 degrees C. Its inhibitory spectrum is limited to other thermophilic streptococci, Brochothrix, and sporulated gram-positive rods. So this bacteriocin could be different from those already described. This bacteriocin-producing strain could be used in thermophilic starter for hard cheese making because the bacteriocin is not active against thermophilic lactobacilli. It is produced in M17 medium during the decreasing temperature phase of the hard cheese-making process temperature cycle and is also produced in milk. Moreover, when Streptococcus thermophilus was cocultured with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis starter strain, it seems to enhance the bacteriocin production. However the level of activity always decreases drastically during the stationary phase. But inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores can be obtained in small-scale curds.