Concentration levels of fluoride in bottled drinking water

J Dent Hyg. 2003 Summer;77(3):161-7.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to classify brands of bottled water by manufacturer assigned labeling to verify the concentration of fluoride for those brands that claim to contain fluoride, and to determine the existence and concentration of fluoride for those brands that do not cite fluoride or list it as undetermined on the product label.

Methods: A convenience sample of bottled drinking waters (N = 65) sold throughout the state of West Virginia was obtained for this study. Among the 65 brands, six different types of water were identified based on common wording displayed on the package. A sample (150 mL) was taken from each brand of water. Each sample was analyzed using an Orion EA940 microprocessor which calculates the fluoride concentration of a given sample. All analyses of bottled waters were reported using an inorganic chemistry laboratory report.

Results: Results, reported in frequencies and percentages, indicate that only 12.3% (N = 8) of the brands tested contained an optimal level of fluoride (0.6 to 1.2 parts per million); 95% of the bottled water analyzed did not list fluoride; 1.1% (N = 7) of the bottled waters analyzed were obtained from municipal sources; and of the sixty-five brands tested, only three brands contained a fluoride concentration consistent with that listed on the label or as identified by the manufacturer.

Conclusions: Several main points can be summarized: 1) solely drinking bottled water may not provide sufficient fluoride to maintain optimal dental health; 2) most bottled waters contain low concentrations of fluoride and therefore, in and of themselves are not a risk for fluorosis; and 3) bottled waters are named and packaged in a variety of ways; however, their composition is virtually the same.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cariostatic Agents / analysis*
  • Drinking
  • Fluorides / analysis*
  • Food Labeling
  • Humans
  • Mineral Waters / analysis
  • Water / analysis*
  • West Virginia


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Mineral Waters
  • Water
  • Fluorides