The involvement of the Sox family of transcription factors in the development of the central nervous system (CNS) appears to be conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates. In Drosophila, SoxNeuro (SoxN) was recently shown to be involved in the formation of neuroblasts [Development 129 (2002) 4193; Development 129 (2002) 4219]. Through a yeast two-hybrid assay searching for proteins interacting with SoxN, we have isolated a novel protein in Drosophila, SoxNeuro Co-Factor (SNCF). The expression of the SNCF gene was detected during early embryogenesis at the blastoderm stages, and stopped just at the beginning of gastrulation. In transfected cells, the protein localised to nuclei, and strongly accumulated in nucleoli. SNCF was able to enhance SoxN mediated transcriptional activity in transfected cells, suggesting that SNCF might act as a SoxN co-activator. Finally, data are presented showing the existence in Drosophila of several proteins with a domain of homology to SNCF, which are all expressed early in embryogenesis at the blastoderm stage.