Carcinogenic metal induced sites of reactive oxygen species formation in hepatocytes

Toxicol In Vitro. 2003 Oct-Dec;17(5-6):803-10. doi: 10.1016/s0887-2333(03)00123-1.


Severe chronic liver disease results from the hepatic accumulation of copper nickel, cobalt or iron in humans and on the other hand cadmium, dichromate and arsenic may induce lung or kidney cancer. Acute or chronic CdCl2, HgCl2 or dichromate administration induces hepatic and nephrotoxicity in rodents. Oxidative stress is often cited as a possible cause but has not yet been measured. For the first time we have measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced when cells are incubated with metals and determined its source. Hepatocytes incubated with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate resulted in its rapid uptake and deacetylation by intracellular esterases to form 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin. A marked increase in ROS formation occurred with LD50 concentrations of cadmium [Cd(II)], Hg(II) or arsenite [As(III)] which was released by proton ionophores that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Uncouplers or oxidative phosphorylation also inhibited ROS formation induced by these metals, which suggests that mitochondria are major contributors to endogenous ROS formation. Glycolytic substrates also inhibited Cd(II)/Hg(II)/As(III)-induced ROS formation and confirms that mitochondria are the site of ROS formation. By contrast ROS formation by LD50 concentrations of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) or dichromate [Cr(VI)] were not affected by uncouplers or glycolytic substrates. However they were inhibited by lysosomotropic agents or endogenous inhibitors [in contrast to Hg(II), Cd(II) or As(III)]. Furthermore Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) or Cr(VI) accumulated in the lysosomes and the ROS formed caused a loss of lysosomal membrane integrity. The release of lysosomal proteases and phospholipases also contributed to hepatocyte cytotoxicity. ROS formation and cytotoxicity induced by added H2O2 or generated by the intracellular redox cycling of nitrofurantoin was also inhibited by lysosomotropic agents and ferric chelators suggesting that lysosomal Fe(II) contributes to H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, lysosomes are sites of cytotoxic ROS formation with redox transition metals (CuII, CrVI, NiII, CoII) whereas mitochondria are the ROS sites for non-redox or poor redox cycling transition metals (CdII, HgII, AsIII).

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogens / toxicity*
  • Hepatocytes / drug effects*
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism
  • Hepatocytes / pathology
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Lysosomes / drug effects*
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metals / toxicity*
  • Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria, Liver / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism*
  • Time Factors


  • Carcinogens
  • Metals
  • Reactive Oxygen Species