Objectives: We sought to determine the efficacy of coaching Latino adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection to adhere to isoniazid treatment.
Methods: Participants (n = 286) were randomly assigned to adherence coaching, attention control, or usual care groups. Adherence was measured via interviews and validated with urine assays.
Results: Coaching resulted in significant increases in adherence compared with attention and usual care groups. Bicultural adolescents were more likely to be adherent than those most or least acculturated. Age and risk behavior were negatively related to adherence.
Conclusions: Coaching can increase Latino adolescents' adherence to treatment for latent tuberculosis infection and should contribute to tuberculosis control for adolescents at high risk of contracting the disease.