Decreased abundance of trefoil factor 1 transcript in the majority of gastric carcinomas

Cancer. 2003 Nov 15;98(10):2184-91. doi: 10.1002/cncr.11789.


Background: Gastric carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying its development and progression still remain largely uncharacterized. As loss of trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) expression leads to neoplastic growth in the antropyloric mucosa of mice, the authors sought to comprehensively study the human TFF1 gene in primary gastric carcinomas.

Methods: The authors studied the human TFF1 gene in primary gastric carcinomas and normal gastric mucosa at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels through DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry.

Results: Strikingly, TFF1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in all 37 gastric carcinomas studied compared with normal gastric mucosa. Furthermore, six tumor/normal pairs with available histologic samples demonstrated a marked decrease in protein expression in tumor samples. Screening of the entire TFF1 coding region in a panel of 42 human gastric tumors did not reveal any somatic mutations, although a few rare germline sequence variants were identified.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrated a significant decrease in the TFF1 transcript in the majority of human gastric carcinomas along with a corresponding reduction in protein expression, both of which occurred in the absence of gene mutation. Dysregulation of TFF1 expression at the transcript level was a critical event in the development of most gastric carcinomas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics*
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Peptides / analysis*
  • Proteins*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Stomach Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Trefoil Factor-1
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins


  • Peptides
  • Proteins
  • TFF1 protein, human
  • Trefoil Factor-1
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins