Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992 Dec;60(6):943-52. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.60.6.943.


Smokers (N = 126) were randomly assigned to 6-session smoking cessation treatments consisting of 1 of 2 counseling strategies (skills training or support) and 1 of 2 nicotine exposure strategies (nicotine gum or rapid smoking). Counseling and nicotine strategies were completely crossed; all four combinations resulted in equivalent 1-year abstinence rates. Skills training produced higher initial cessation and more coping responses posttreatment than did support. Rapid smoking, but not nicotine gum, produced tachycardia to the taste of cigarettes posttreatment, consistent with cigarette aversion. The treatments were differentially effective among subpopulations of smokers: Subjects high in pretreatment negative affect responded best to support counseling; those low in pretreatment negative affect responded best to skills training. Self-reports of pretreatment craving predicted response to the nicotine exposure treatments.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Affect / drug effects*
  • Arousal / drug effects
  • Aversive Therapy
  • Chewing Gum
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Nicotine / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Social Support
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology*


  • Chewing Gum
  • Nicotine