Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4: identification of a rheumatoid arthritis-susceptible gene

Trends Mol Med. 2003 Nov;9(11):503-8. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2003.09.010.


Recent studies using linkage disequilibrium and SNPs uncovered a rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-susceptible haplotype in the gene encoding peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) type 4. This gene is one of four known PADI genes that encode enzymes to change arginine into citrulline in proteins. Post-translational modifications of proteins, including peptidyl citrullination, are related to autoimmunity, and peptidyl citrulline is a known target of one of the most RA-specific autoantibodies. Further research on PADI4, its citrullination of native peptides, subsequent breakdown of tolerance, and the role of these peptides in the development of RA, is expected to bring a better understanding of autoimmunity and arthritis, and advancements in the medical care of RA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / immunology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / enzymology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / genetics*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism
  • Autoimmunity / genetics
  • Autoimmunity / immunology
  • Autoimmunity / physiology
  • Citrulline / immunology
  • Citrulline / metabolism
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Hydrolases / genetics*
  • Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Peptides / immunology
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Protein-Arginine Deiminase Type 4
  • Protein-Arginine Deiminases


  • Antibodies
  • Peptides
  • Citrulline
  • Hydrolases
  • PADI4 protein, human
  • Protein-Arginine Deiminase Type 4
  • Protein-Arginine Deiminases