Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP): anti-diabetic and anti-obesity potential?

Neuropeptides. 2003 Oct;37(5):253-63. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2003.09.002.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP or gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is a gastrointestinal hormone, which modulates physiological insulin secretion. Due to its insulinotropic activity, there has been a considerable increase of interest in utilising the hormone as a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. One of the difficulties in attempting to harness the insulinotropic activity of GIP into an effective therapeutic agent is its short biological half-life in the circulation. However, recent years have witnessed the development of a substantial number of designer enzyme-resistant 'super GIP' molecules with potent insulinotropic and anti-diabetic properties. In addition, observations in transgenic GIP receptor deficient mice indicate that GIP directly links overnutrition to obesity, therein playing a crucial role in the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The present review aims to highlight the rapidly emerging potential therapeutic applications of GIP, and especially, enzyme-resistant GIP analogues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / genetics
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / metabolism
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Obesity*


  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide