Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent inhibitor of proliferation of epithelial, endothelial and hematopoietic cells and acts as a tumor suppressor. The gene for TGF-beta1, TGFB1, carries a common T/C variation of nucleotide 29, resulting in a leucine (L) to proline (P) polymorphism at codon 10 (TGFB1 L10P). The less common 10P allele has repeatedly been linked to higher TGF-beta1 levels and in at least one study to a lower incidence of breast cancer. To further analyze the role of this polymorphism for breast cancer risk, 500 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 500 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were genotyped for the TGFB1 L10P polymorphism by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. TGFB1 LL, LP and PP genotype frequencies were not significantly different for patients (39.6, 44.2, 16.2%) and controls (36.5, 45.9, 17.6%). We conclude that the TGFB1 L10P polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer risk.