Snoring and the metabolic syndrome in women

Sleep Med. 2003 Nov;4(6):531-6. doi: 10.1016/s1389-9457(03)00160-6.


Objective: The main objective was to examine the association between metabolic syndrome, snoring and sleep quality among women.

Methods: The study sample comprised healthy women (30-65 years) from the greater Stockholm area. Snoring and sleep quality were measured by the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. The metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of two or more of the following components: (1) fasting serum glucose level > or =7.0 mmol/L; (2) arterial blood pressure > or =140/90 mmHg; (3) fasting serum triglycerides > or =1.7 mmol/L and/or HDL cholesterol <1.05 mmol/L; and (4) obesity (waist-to-hip ratio >0.85 and/or BMI > or =28 kg/m2).

Results: After adjustment for age, the risk ratio of metabolic syndrome among snorers as compared to non-snorers was 4.50 (95% CI: 1.71-11.86; p=0.002). This association persisted after controlling for menopausal status, educational level, smoking, fatigue and exercise habits. Poor sleep quality showed a trend (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 0.89-12.21; p=0.073) towards an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, but this did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Snoring may be a strong predictor for metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. These findings show that snoring women are not only at increased risk for individual risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, but also for metabolic syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / epidemiology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Snoring / diagnosis
  • Snoring / epidemiology*
  • Snoring / metabolism*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Triglycerides / blood*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Triglycerides