Driving improvement in patient care: lessons from Toyota

J Nurs Adm. 2003 Nov;33(11):585-95. doi: 10.1097/00005110-200311000-00008.


Nurses today are attempting to do more with less while grappling with faulty error-prone systems that do not focus on patients at the point of care. This struggle occurs against a backdrop of rising national concern over the incidence of medical errors in healthcare. In an effort to create greater value with scarce resources and fix broken systems that compromise quality care, UPMC Health System is beginning to master and implement the Toyota Production System (TPS)--a method of managing people engaged in work that emphasizes frequent rapid problem solving and work redesign that has become the global archetype for productivity and performance. The authors discuss the rationale for applying TPS to healthcare and implementation of the system through the development of "learning unit" model lines and initial outcomes, such as dramatic reductions in the number of missing medications and thousands of hours and dollars saved as a result of TPS-driven changes. Tracking data further suggest that TPS, with sufficient staff preparation and involvement, has the potential for continuous, lasting, and accelerated improvement in patient care.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Automobiles
  • Delivery of Health Care, Integrated / standards*
  • Efficiency, Organizational
  • Hospital Restructuring / organization & administration*
  • Humans
  • Industry / organization & administration
  • Medication Errors / prevention & control
  • Models, Organizational
  • Motivation
  • Needs Assessment / organization & administration
  • Nurse's Role*
  • Nursing Administration Research
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / psychology
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / standards*
  • Pennsylvania
  • Problem Solving
  • Regional Medical Programs / organization & administration
  • Risk Management
  • Systems Analysis
  • Time and Motion Studies
  • Total Quality Management / organization & administration*