Inter-relationships among sense of coherence, hope, and spiritual perspective (inner resources) of African-American and European-American breast cancer survivors

Appl Nurs Res. 2003 Nov;16(4):236-44. doi: 10.1016/s0897-1897(03)00053-3.


This descriptive study compared sense of coherence (SOC), hope, and spiritual perspective in African-American and European-American breast cancer survivors. Five African-American and five European-American survivors completed multiple self-report instruments. Nonparametric statistical analyses included the Spearman rho and Mann-Whitney U tests. As hypothesized, there were significant positive relationships between SOC and spiritual perspective (r(s) =.768, p =.005) and hope and spiritual perspective (r(s) =.561, p =.046). There were no significant differences in SOC, hope, or spiritual perspective scores in the African-American compared with the European-American survivors. Results justify a larger study to explore inner resources of African-American breast cancer survivors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*
  • Attitude*
  • Breast Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Religion*
  • Self Concept
  • Survivors / psychology*