Supernumerary small marker chromosome (SMC) and uniparental disomy 22 in a child with confined placental mosaicism of trisomy 22: trisomy rescue due to marker chromosome formation

Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003;101(2):103-5. doi: 10.1159/000074163.


Trisomy rescue is one of various proposed mechanisms in formation of supernumerary small marker chromosomes (SMC) and uniparental disomy (UPD). In the present report a small de novo marker chromosome derived from chromosome 14 or 22 was diagnosed at prenatal diagnosis due to maternal age. Follow up investigations at birth revealed mosaicism 47,XX,+mar/46,XX. Using FISH, the marker was positive for the probe D14/22Z1, but negative for the probes midi 54 and D22Z4. Using three informative markers both chromosomes 22 were shown to be inherited from the mother (UPDmat). The results are consistent with nondisjunction at maternal meiosis I. The girl is 18 months old now and phenotypically normal. Cardiac and abdominal malformations were excluded by sonographic examinations. Motor and mental development is according to or ahead of developmental milestones (free walking with 10 months, first words at 12 months). The case confirms that maternal UPD 22 most likely is not associated with clinical abnormalities. According to FISH results, UPD 22, and 47,XX,+22 in the placenta, we conclude that the SMC was derived from alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 22. This case for the first time gives evidence that early postzygotic reduction of a chromosome to a small marker chromosome is a real existing mechanism to rescue a conceptus with trisomy.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22*
  • Female
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mosaicism*
  • Placenta
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Trisomy*
  • Uniparental Disomy*


  • Genetic Markers