One-dimensional bosons in three-dimensional traps

Phys Rev Lett. 2003 Oct 10;91(15):150401. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.150401. Epub 2003 Oct 7.


Recent experimental and theoretical work has indicated conditions in which a trapped, low density Bose gas ought to behave like the 1D delta-function Bose gas solved by Lieb and Liniger. Up until now, the theoretical arguments have been based on variational/perturbative ideas or numerical investigations. There are four parameters: density, transverse and longitudinal dimensions, and scattering length. In this paper we explicate five parameter regions in which various types of 1D or 3D behavior occur in the ground state. Our treatment is based on a rigorous analysis of the many-body Schrödinger equation.