Cells undergoing endoreduplication replicate chromosomal DNA without intervening mitoses. The resulting larger, higher-ploidy nucleus is often associated with an increase in cell size, but the molecular basis for this correlation remains poorly understood. Recent advances in characterising various mutants and transgenic plants are beginning to unravel how this unique type of cell cycling is regulated and how it contributes to cell-size control. Both cell growth (i.e. increase in cytoplasmic macromolecular mass) and cell expansion (i.e. increase in cell volume through vacuolation) contribute independently to increases in cell size in plants. A total organ-size checkpoint may also help to coordinate cell size and cell number within an organ, and can contribute to final cell-size determination in plants.