To identify new diagnostic markers for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), including seminomas, as well as potential targets of new drugs for treating the disease, we compared gene-expression profiles of cancer cells from 13 seminomas with normal human testis using laser-capture microdissection and a cDNA microarray representing 23,040 genes. We identified 347 genes that were commonly up-regulated in seminoma cells. The functions of 227 were known to some extent; the remaining 120 included 55 ESTs. On the list were cyclin D2 (CCND2), prostate cancer over-expressed gene 1 (POV1), and junction plakoglobin (JUP), all of which were already known to be over-expressed in seminomas. On the other hand, our protocol selected 593 genes as being commonly down-regulated in seminoma cells. That list included 340 functionally characterized genes; the other 253 included 131 ESTs. To confirm the expression data, we performed semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments with nine highly up-regulated genes, and the results supported those of our microarray analysis. The information provided here should prove useful for identifying genes whose products might serve as molecular targets for treatment of TGCTs.