Serious infection due to strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that exhibit resistance to all common antipseudomonal antimicrobials increasingly is a serious problem. Colistin was used as salvage therapy for 23 critically ill patients with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infection. Twenty-two patients who had septic shock (n=14) and/or renal failure (n=21) received mechanical ventilatory support at baseline. The most common types of infection were pneumonia (n=18) and intra-abdominal infection (n=5). Colistin was administered for a median of 17 days (range, 7-36 days). Seven patients died during therapy, at a median of 17 days (range, 4-26 days) after initiation of treatment. A favorable clinical response was observed in 14 patients (61%); only 3 patients experienced relapse. Bacteremia was the only significant factor associated with treatment failure (P=.02). One patient manifested diffuse weakness that resolved after temporary cessation of colistin therapy. Colistin provides an important salvage therapeutic option for patients with otherwise untreatable serious P. aeruginosa infection.