Transmission ratio distortion in mice

Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:393-408. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.37.110801.143030.


The most studied example of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in mice is that of the t-complex. This is a variant region of Chromosome 17 which exists as a polymorphism in wild mice. Males heterozygous for a t-haplotype and a normal Chr 17 transmit the t-haplotype to >50% of their young, up to 99%. Homozygous males are sterile. The TRD produced by the t-complex is due to the action of three or more distorter genes (Tcd) on a responder gene (Tcr). t-Haplotypes are maintained intact by crossover suppression induced by four neighboring inversions, the Tcd and Tcr loci lying in different inversions. Sperm formation is normal in t/t males, but sperm function is impaired through gross defects in sperm motility. The responder gene has been identified as a fusion gene formed from a sperm motility kinase and a ribosomal S6 kinase. Three candidate distorter genes have also been identified as genes coding for dynein chains, and thus possibly involved in sperm flagellar function.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Crosses, Genetic*
  • Dyneins / genetics
  • Dyneins / physiology
  • Genes, Lethal
  • Heterozygote
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics*
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / physiology
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology
  • Quantitative Trait Loci
  • Spermatozoa / physiology
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • t-Complex Genome Region


  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PPP1R11 protein, human
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Dyneins