Cholera toxin protects against action by Clostridium difficile toxin A. The role of antisecretory factor in intestinal secretion and inflammation in rat

APMIS. 2003 Oct;111(10):969-77. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0463.2003.1111009.x.


The protein antisecretory factor (AF) inhibits intestinal fluid secretion induced by the cholera toxin (CT) and Clostridium difficile toxin A (CDA). The present work investigated whether CT-induced AF protects against the enterotoxin action by CDA. Rats were pretreated perorally with CT or buffer as control, whereafter CDA-induced fluid secretion and cytotoxicity was tested in vivo in ligated intestinal loops; the mucosal level of AF was estimated using the Western blot technique. Rats given repeated peroral doses of CT became tolerant to CDA, the inhibition of fluid secretion and of cytotoxicity being 79% in eight out of nine animals. The repeated CT-treatment also induced long-lasting rise of AF in the mucosal epithelium. Recombinant AF given either perorally or intravenously inhibited both fluid secretion and cytotoxicity by CDA; similar results were obtained with a truncated 16-mer AF peptide.

In conclusion: peroral CT-treatment induced tolerance to CDA in rat small intestine. The tolerance was probably mediated by AF induced via action of cholera toxin on the enteric nervous and immune system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Toxins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Bacterial Toxins / toxicity
  • Body Fluids / drug effects
  • Body Fluids / metabolism
  • Cholera Toxin / toxicity*
  • Diarrhea / etiology
  • Enteric Nervous System / drug effects
  • Enteric Nervous System / pathology
  • Enteric Nervous System / physiopathology
  • Enterotoxins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Enterotoxins / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / physiopathology
  • Intestine, Small / drug effects*
  • Intestine, Small / pathology
  • Intestine, Small / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Neuropeptides / pharmacology
  • Neuropeptides / physiology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • antisecretory factor
  • tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile
  • Cholera Toxin