Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a role in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease. Etanercept (Enbrel; Immunex Corp., Seattle, WA, USA) is a recombinant soluble fusion protein of TNF-alpha type II receptor and IgG which acts by blocking the action of TNF-alpha. It is licensed for use in rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile chronic arthritis. A number of studies report the development of antinuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in patients treated with TNF antagonists for rheumatoid arthritis. There are few reports of the development of clinical features of discoid, subacute or systemic lupus erythematosus. We present one of the first reported cases of etenercept-induced systemic lupus erythematosus and review the literature of lupus and TNF antagonists.