Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) is mutated in 6-10% of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Recently, we reported the emergence of an N-terminal C/EBPalpha mutation after chemotherapy in a patient with secondary AML. The clone carrying the mutation became the dominant clone at relapse. This observation prompted us to compare the C/EBPalpha mutational status of 26 de novo non-core binding factor AML patients at diagnosis and at relapse after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Four mutations in the C/EBPalpha gene were identified in two out of 26 patients. In both these cases, a biallelic mutation was present at diagnosis and at relapse: an amino-terminal frameshift mutation and a mutation of the fork/leucine finger 1 region. In patient 1, the amino-terminal frameshift mutation was duplicated and found on both alleles at relapse. In patient 2, the amino-terminal frameshift mutation and a mutation in the fork region were found either alone or combined on the same allele, suggesting a subclone formation. None of the patients without a C/EBPalpha mutation at diagnosis showed a mutation at relapse. This is the first report of an evolution of the C/EBPalpha gene between diagnosis and relapse in AML.