Bacterial wilt, one of the most devastating bacterial diseases of plants worldwide, is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and affects many important crop species. We show that several strains isolated from solanaceous crops in Europe are pathogenic in different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. One of these strains, 14.25, causes wilting symptoms in A. thaliana accession Landsberg erecta (Ler) and no apparent symptoms in accession Columbia (Col-0). Disease development and bacterial multiplication in the susceptible Ler accession depend on functional hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, key elements for bacterial pathogenicity. Genetic analysis using Ler x Col-0 recombinant inbred lines showed that resistance is governed by at least three loci: QRS1 (Quantitative Resistance to R. solanacearum) and QRS2 on chromosome 2, and QRS3 on chromosome 5. These loci explain about 90% of the resistance carried by the Col-0 accession. The ERECTA gene, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) and affects development of aerial organs, is dimorphic in our population and lies close to QRS1. Susceptible Ler plants transformed with a wild-type ERECTA gene, and the LER line showed increased disease resistance to R. solanacearum as indicated by reduced wilt symptoms and impaired bacterial growth, suggesting unexpected cross-talk between resistance and developmental pathways.