Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary involvement after solid organ transplantation is infrequently seen nowadays, CMV pneumonitis is still a potential lethal complication. Introduction of the pp65 antigenemia assay enabled early and rapid diagnosis of CMV viremia in transplant patients prior to symptoms. Also, in asymptomatic patients with CMV viremia, a decreased pulmonary diffusion capacity could be demonstrated. In this review, we discuss clinical and subclinical pulmonary involvement of CMV infection in the immunocompromised host with an emphasis on transplant recipients. The clinical course, diagnosis, therapy, prophylaxis, and pathophysiology of CMV pneumonitis are discussed.