Modern synthetic methods for copper-mediated C(aryl)[bond]O, C(aryl)[bond]N, and C(aryl)[bond]S bond formation

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2003 Nov 17;42(44):5400-49. doi: 10.1002/anie.200300594.


The copper-mediated C(aryl)[bond]N, C(aryl)[bond]O, and C(aryl)[bond]S bond formation is an important transformation and has been developed to include a wide range of substrates. This Review highlights the recent developments in the copper-mediated (both stoichiometric and catalytic) reactions of aryl boronic acids, aryl halides, iodonium salts, siloxanes, stannanes, plumbanes, bismuthates, and trifluoroborate salts as aryl donors. In particular, the recent introduction of boronic acids as reaction partners in both O- and N-arylation has been a significant discovery and will occupy centre-stage in this review. Clear improvements can be obtained by the correct choice of copper source, base, ligands, and other additives. Mechanistic investigations should provide insight into the catalytically active species, which would aid in the development of milder, more-efficient methods.