We have detected cytoplasmic anti-Golgi antibody (AGA) during a routine immunofluorescence test for detecting autoantibodies. Two sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reacted to the Golgi complex by an indirect immunofluorescence technique on HEp-2 cells. Localization of AGA in the Golgi complex was confirmed by double-staining with antibodies to beta-COP. The effect of monensin on the integrity and morphology of the Golgi complex was also studied. To confirm the presence of AGA further, we performed immuno-electron microscopy. Both sera reacted with cytoplasmic antigen located in the Golgi complex of various animal tissues. Furthermore, by using the Western blot technique, both sera reacted to a relative molecular weight (MW) of 79 kDa (doublet) Golgi antigen purified from rat liver. To our knowledge, this study may be the first to identify the relative MW of Golgi antigen by the Western blot method. Identification of this antibody could provide better understanding of protein synthesis and secretion. The presence of AGA in RA patients further substantiates the diversified nature of autoantibody production seen in this disease.