In Switzerland graft survival after primary renal transplantation can be considered as satisfactory, although our current policy does not favour HLA compatibility except for acute rejectors or sensitized patients. This low level of HLA matching could result in increased sensitization and affect subsequent graft survival. A total of 318 non-primary renal transplants were performed in 293 recipients during the period 1981-1990. Of these, 271 were second transplants, 40 were third transplants and seven were fourth or fifth transplants. Survival rates at 1, 2 and 5 years were 75%, 68% and 60% for second grafts, and 72%, 60% and 54% for third grafts, respectively. Results after multiple grafts were poor, but our experience was limited. The number of sensitized patients (peak PRA > 50%) awaiting retransplantation slightly increased (51 to 69), but decreased as a proportion (72% to 66%). Our policy of relying only marginally on HLA compatibility does not appear to have affected our results adversely.