Ineffective humoral immunity in the elderly

Microbes Infect. 2003 Nov;5(13):1279-84. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2003.09.001.


As individuals age, dysfunction of the immune system leads to an increased incidence of infectious disease. Due to the complex network of cellular interactions and the multi-factorial process of aging, numerous impairments in humoral immunity have been reported. Advances in technology have allowed scientists to begin to identify the molecular mechanisms behind the age-associated decline.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Communicable Diseases / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune System