Detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium by impedance measurement of electrode capacitance and medium resistance

Biosens Bioelectron. 2003 Dec 30;19(5):495-502. doi: 10.1016/s0956-5663(03)00229-x.


Three-electrode electrochemical impedance technique was investigated for detection of Salmonella typhimurium by monitoring the growth of bacteria in selenite cystine (SC) broth supplemented with trimethylamine oxide hydrochloride (TMAO.HCl) and mannitol (M). The change in the system impedance during the growth of bacteria was studied using frequency spectral scanning. It was found that the impedance at low frequencies (<10 kHz) mainly came from the double-charged layer capacitance, reflecting the changes at the electrode interface and the adsorption on the electrode surface. While at high frequencies (>10 kHz), the system impedance mainly depended on the medium resistance. The adsorption of bacteria on the electrode surface was detected by measuring low frequency impedance, and verified with Faradic impedance spectroscopy. Enumeration of S. typhimurium using a low frequency (1 Hz) capacitance measurement and a high frequency (1 MHz) resistance measurement were compared. The detection times were determined for quantitative analysis based on the growth curves of bacteria referring to either the medium resistance or electrode capacitance. The regression equations for the detection times (t(d), h) and the initial cell number (N, were t(d)=-1.24logN+13.4 with R(2)=0.98 and t(d)=-1.40logN+14.46 with R(2)=0.97 for the medium resistance and electrode capacitance methods, respectively.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Count / methods*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Cell Survival / physiology
  • Culture Media / chemistry*
  • Electric Capacitance
  • Electric Impedance*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / cytology
  • Salmonella typhimurium / isolation & purification*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / physiology*


  • Culture Media