Update on Animal Models Developed for Analyses of Estrogen Receptor Biological Activity

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Sep;86(3-5):387-91. doi: 10.1016/s0960-0760(03)00348-0.


Targeted disruption of the different ER genes has generated experimental animal models that are very useful in evaluating the distinct and cooperative roles of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, in reproductive but also non-reproductive tissues of both sexes. Phenotypic analysis has provided definitive experimental findings for estrogen receptor mediated physiological actions, involving ERalpha in uterine, mammary gland and neuroendocrine sites. ERbeta is involved most dramatically in the ovary as is ERalpha. More detailed studies in combination with tissue specific or inducible ER knock outs will be important for future research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Infertility, Male / genetics
  • Infertility, Male / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism
  • Models, Animal
  • Ovary / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, Estrogen / physiology*
  • Reproduction / genetics
  • Uterus / metabolism


  • Receptors, Estrogen