We have recently reported that systemic delivery of A-317491, the first non-nucleotide antagonist that has high affinity and selectivity for blocking P2X3 homomeric and P2X2/3 heteromeric channels, is antinociceptive in rat models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In an effort to further evaluate the role of P2X3/P2X2/3 receptors in nociceptive transmission, A-317491 was administered either intrathecally or into the hindpaw of a rat in several models of acute and chronic nociception. Intraplantar (ED50=300 nmol) and intrathecal (ED50=30 nmol) injections of A-317491 produced dose-related antinociception in the CFA model of chronic thermal hyperalgesia. Administration of A-317491 by either route was much less effective to reduce thermal hyperalgesia in the carrageenan model of acute inflammatory hyperalgesia. Intrathecal, but not intraplantar, delivery of A-317491 attenuated mechanical allodynia in both the chronic constriction injury and L5-L6 nerve ligation models of neuropathy (ED50=10 nmol for both models). Intrathecal injections of A-317491 did not impede locomotor performance. Both routes of injection were effective in reducing the number of nocifensive events triggered by the injection of formalin into a hindpaw. Nocifensive behaviors were significantly reduced in both the first and second phases of the formalin assay (intrathecal ED50=10 nmol, intraplantar ED50>300 nmol). Nocifensive behaviors induced by the P2X receptor agonist alpha,beta-meATP were also significantly reduced by intraplantar injection of A-317491. These data indicate that both spinal and peripheral P2X3/P2X2/3 receptors have significant contributions to nociception in several animal models of nerve or tissue injury. Intrathecal administration of A-317491 appears to be more effective than intraplantar administration to reduce tactile allodynia following peripheral nerve injury.