The top and the bottom of ADHD: a neuropsychological perspective

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003 Nov;27(7):583-92. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.08.004.


Five models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed. It is proposed that the cognitive-energetic model provides a reasonably comprehensive account of ADHD by incorporating the features of both the inhibition and delay aversion models. It is suggested that ADHD can only be accounted for by an analysis at three levels: top-down control, specific cognitive processes and energetic factors. It is argued that a refined and conceptually comprehensive neuropsychological battery is needed to advance research in ADHD. A widely distributed neural network involving frontal, basal ganglia, limbic and cerebellar loci seem implicated in ADHD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Brain Chemistry / physiology
  • Humans
  • Mental Processes / physiology
  • Models, Neurological*
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Neural Pathways / physiopathology