Objective: Street foods are an important source of nutrients for poor urban residents. This study aimed to identify determinants of the proportion of daily energy provided by non-home-prepared foods.
Methods: A survey was conducted in a slum and a low- to middle-income area of Nairobi. The survey included 241 men and 254 women. Through a structured questionnaire, data on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected and food intake was assessed with three standardized 24-hour recalls. A measure of socioeconomic status was constructed with principal component analysis.
Results: For women in the slum area, the presence of school-age children and distance to work were determinants of non-home-prepared food consumption, whereas employment status and distance to work were determinants for men in the slum area (P < 0.05). Having their own income and, for those employed, employment status were determinants for women in the low- to middle-income area, whereas socioeconomic status was the determinant for the men (P < 0.05). In the slum area, most non-home-prepared foods were derived from street foods, whereas in the low- to middle-income area, both kiosks and street foods were important sources of non-home-prepared foods.
Conclusions: In the determinants of non-home-prepared energy consumption, we discerned a pattern from rather basic determinants to determinants of a more complicated nature with increasing socioeconomic level of the groups. Furthermore, a shift from street foods to kiosks as the main source of non-home-prepared foods consumed appeared with increasing socioeconomic levels.