Military and civilian experience has contributed to the current state of the art in management of extremity vascular injuries. Thorough physical examination and judicious use of emergency center arteriography and formal arteriography provide means for prompt diagnosis and treatment which is critical is limb loss and disability are to be avoided. Prosthetic graft material has provided an alternative to vein grafting in many circumstances for arterial and venous injuries. Compartment syndrome should be anticipated when an ischemic extremity is revascularized and fasciotomy should be used liberally. Vascular repairs are the first priority in extremity wounds, but associated injuries to bones, joints, soft tissues, and nerves are often critical determinants of rehabilitation once blood supply has been re-established. The best results are obtained when a multidisciplinary approach is used combining expertise in orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery.