Toll-like receptors: balancing host resistance with immune tolerance

Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Dec;15(6):677-82. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2003.09.002.


Recent advances in the field of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have established their importance for acute innate immune responses and their fundamental requirement for initiation of CD4(+) T-cell responses. Current directions in the field have been towards understanding the role of cytokines secreted by professional antigen-presenting cells in response to TLR ligands and also pathological manifestations in terms of increased production of rheumatoid factors due to TLR ligation on B cells. Thus, it is becoming clear that TLRs are important for induction of adaptive immune responses, but misguided responses can lead to autoimmune pathology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology*
  • Immunity / immunology*
  • Ligands
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Ligands
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors