In a total of 511 patients with T3,N0-3,M0 laryngeal carcinoma, 24 possible prognostic factors were analyzed retrospectively. The factors were age, sex, mode of treatment, duration of several clinical symptoms, the presence of sore throat, otalgia, dyspnea, and dysphagia, previous tracheotomy, tumor extension, lymph node status (five items), histologic grading, smoking habits, and alcohol intake. For 300 patients in whom surgery was part of the primary treatment, pathologic staging of the primary tumor and of lymph nodes in neck dissection specimens, cartilage invasion, radicality of the operation, differentiation grade, and subglottic extension ware also evaluated. In a univariate analysis for the whole group, tumor extension (limited to the glottic region), lymph node status (clinically palpable lymph nodes, cytologically confirmed positive lymph nodes), level of lymph node metastasis (high and midjugular site), histologic grading (poor differentiation grade), and treatment modality (planned combined therapy) were considered to be prognostic factors of corrected actuarial survival. In the group that underwent surgery, all factors derived from specimens of the larynx and neck dissections had prognostic significance. Multivariate analysis revealed that the glottic site of the tumor, the presence of cyto- and histopathologically proven metastatic lymph nodes, pretreatment tracheotomy, positive resection margins, and planned combined treatment had a significant influence on corrected actuarial survival.