IVIG treatment of adenovirus infection-associated macrophage activation syndrome in a two-year-old boy: case report and review of the literature

Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003 Sep;20(6):445-51.


A 2-year-old boy with severe multiorgan disease (i.e., otitis, enteritis, bilateral pneumonia, encephalopathy, myocarditis, rash) was diagnosed with adenovirus-associated macrophage activation syndrome according to clinical and laboratory parameters (fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia). He had no unusual history of earlier infections or a family history of hemophagocytic syndrome or immune defects. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to prevent exacerbation of the suspected incipient hemophagocytic syndrome. Clarithromycin, a macrolide with immunomodulatory effect, was included in the antibiotic regimen of the progressive pneumonia, followed by rapid amelioration and remission of clinical and laboratory findings. Causal links between treatment and clinical improvement are discussed and a brief review of the recent literature is included.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenovirus Infections, Human / complications*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Ferritins / blood
  • Hepatomegaly / etiology
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / diagnosis
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / etiology
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use*
  • Macrophage Activation*
  • Male
  • Splenomegaly / etiology


  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Ferritins