Synergy of passive coating and targeted drug delivery: the tacrolimus-eluting Janus CarboStent

J Interv Cardiol. 2003 Dec;16(6):499-505. doi: 10.1046/j.1540-8183.2003.01050.x.


Stents represent a major step forward in the treatment of coronary artery disease since the introduction of balloon angioplasty. They have demonstrated the reduction of angiographic indexes of restenosis and rates of repeat revascularization. However, in-stent neointimal proliferation represents the persisting limitation and challenge. Local delivery using a stent platform for deposition of therapeutic drug concentration in the arterial wall has emerged as an effective strategy to reduce in-stent neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. The purpose of this article is to describe the design characteristics of a new drug-eluting stent. Its unique features consist of integral Carbofilm thromboresistant coating combined with the capability to load the drug into and to release it from deep sculptures made on the external surface of the stent. The advantages of this design are the possibility to load higher amounts of drug, to selectively deliver it to the vessel wall without loss in the blood stream, and to improve the biocompatibility and thromboresistance of the stent. Preclinical studies, using tacrolimus as the biological agent, showed excellent vessel tissue response and mild inflammation scores. A significant reduction of intimal proliferation was observed in comparison with a control stent. The enrollment in a safety first-in-man evaluation has been successfully completed. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study is expected to start at the completion of the "safety" evaluation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / therapeutic use*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy*
  • Coronary Restenosis / etiology
  • Coronary Restenosis / prevention & control*
  • Drug Carriers
  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Rabbits
  • Stents*
  • Tacrolimus / administration & dosage*


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Drug Carriers
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Tacrolimus